Lessons learned implementing the C2Sim standard in 2019 Coalition Warrior Interoperability Exercise
The US Army Redstone Test Center (RTC) participated in the 2019 Coalition Warrior Interoperability Exercise (CWIX) designed to evaluate the Command and Control Systems to Simulation Systems Interoperation (C2Sim) specification. The draft C2Sim Simulation Interoperability Standards Organization (SISO) standard stimulates simulation behaviors based on C2 system tasks. RTC developed a prototype One Semi-Automated Force (OneSAF) to C2Sim interface to send and receive messages to a C2Sim server. The prototype consists of three major components, one to translate a loaded OneSAF scenario into C2Sim initialization messages, one to generate position reports for currently simulated OneSAF entities, and a third to translate C2Sim orders to corresponding OneSAF behaviors.
BMLC2GUI, a C2 surrogate application, generated mission tasks and represented basic C2 situational awareness for the event participants. This GUI allowed users to create C2Sim orders, push orders and tasks to simulations, and view position reports coming from the various federates published through C2Sim. The C2Sim server also implemented a connector to SitaWare, allowing sites to view position reports and orders through its interface.
At the start of the exercise, BMLC2GUI can generate a C2Sim Initialization message containing all entities and their locations for the entire event. Connected federates can then use this message to create the specific entities and units for simulation during an exercise. The current draft implementation of C2Sim does not support enough fields to effectively initialize a OneSAF scenario, instead we chose to create and load a OneSAF scenario before the event and discarded the contents of the initialization message.
To conform to the C2Sim specification, federates must periodically creates and sends position reports for each simulated entity or unit. Our OneSAF-C2Sim interface created these reports every 30 seconds and contains the unit's position, orientation, and a timestamp. Due to OneSAF simulating at the entity level, we implemented a whitelist filter to only send position reports from specific entities to represent required units. This drastically reduced the number of unit graphics on the C2 device, improving readability.
To implement orders coming from the C2Sim server, our protype leveraged the OneSAF User Data Gateway (UDG). This interface allows control of OneSAF from an external web browser. The OneSAF-C2Sim prototype accepted commands from the C2Sim server over Simple Text Oriented Message Protocol (STOMP). The interface translated and forwarded these messages through the OneSAF UDG in order to create behaviors inside OneSAF. Operators could then modify, stop, and restart these behaviors through the OneSAF Web Control Tool (WCT) as required.The 2019 CWIX exercise consisted of a small scenario located in Norrkoping, Sweden. The RTC OneSAF federate simulated a single infantry company with its subordinate platoons, and opposing forces. We modeled the infantry company's mission using three OneSAF behaviors: move tactically along a designated route, assault an area, and occupy position after the assault. The BMLC2GUI tasked the company with all three behaviors without manual intervention in OneSAF. This demonstrates the capability for a military role player to control OneSAF without the requirement of a simulation interactor to translate the orders.